Jamshedpur is the first well-planned industrial city of India, founded by the late Jamshedji Nusserwanji Tata and the 32nd urban aggloramation in India. Jamshedpur is surrounded by the beautiful Dalma Hills. The rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai border the North and West of the city respectively. In 1919 Lord Chelmsford named the city Jamshedpur in honour of its founder, Jamshedji Nausherwanji Tata, whose birthday is celebrated on 3 March as Founder's Day. J. N. Tata had written to his son Dorabji Tata about his vision of a great city in the area. On Founders Day, the 225-acre (0.91 km2) Jubilee Park is decorated with brilliant light work for about a week, attracting people from all parts of the nation.
At the turn of the twentieth century, the Tatas wanted to build a steel plant in India. Jamshedji Tata went to Pittsburgh and asked geologist Charles Page Perin to help him find the site to build his dream -- India's first steel plant. The search for a site rich in the resources needed for the plant, namely iron, coal, limestone and water began in April 1904 in today's Madhya Pradesh.
The prospectors, C. M. Weld, Dorab Tata and Shapurji Saklatvala, took nearly three years in a painstaking search across vast stretches of inhospitable terrain to find a suitable location. One day, almost by accident they came across a village called Sakchi (now part of Tatanagar), on the densely forested stretches of the Chhota Nagpur plateau, near the confluence of the Subarnarekha and Kharkai rivers. It seemed to be the ideal choice and the place was selected.
Early development work was undertaken by Durrell & Co, a civil engineering firm run by Lawrence Samuel Durrell, the father of the naturalist Gerald Durrell (who was born here) and the novelist Lawrence Durrell. Commissioned by the Tata family in 1920, Durrell was responsible for building a tinplate mill, a brick-making plant, an office building, a hospital and over four hundred workers' houses.
Jamshedji's plan for the city was clear. He envisioned far more than a mere row of workers hutments. He insisted upon building all the comforts and conveniences a city could provide. As a result, many areas in the city are well planned and there are great public leisure places such as the Jubilee Park.
While building this beautiful city, Jamshedji Tata had said...
"Be sure to lay wide streets planted with shady trees, every other of a quick growing variety. Be sure that there is plenty of space for lawns and gardens; reserve large areas for football, hockey and parks; earmark areas for Hindu temples, Mohammedan mosques and Christian churches."
What the city looks like today is a testament to his visionary plans. Jamshedpur is the only city in India without a municipality. The responsibility for its conservation and maintenance is entirely assumed by Tata Steel, very likely a unique situation in the world.
Legend has it that in the late 1980s when the state government proposed a law to end the Tatas' administration of Jamshedpur and bring the city under a municipality, the local populace rose in protest and defeated the government's proposal. In 2005, a similar proposal was once again put up by lobbying politicians. The target audience was the working class. A large majority of this sided with the government and set up protest meetings outside the East-Singhbhum Deputy Commissioner's office. However, the objective was never achieved and Jamshedpur remains without a municipality till date- and the quality services continue.
Jamshedpur has an average elevation of 135 metres (442 ft). Jamshedpur is located in a hilly region, and its terrain is quite uneven. . Jamshedpur occupies about 2.03% of the total area of Jharkhand. Total geographical area of Jamshedpur is 230.59 km square. It receives about 1200 mm of rainfall annually.
Jamshedpur, as home to the first private Iron and Steel company of India(sixth largest in the world), Tata Steel, is commonly called "Tata Nagar" as a result of the company's significant presence. The areas surrounding Jamshedpur are rich in minerals, including iron ore, coal, manganese bauxite and lime.
Jamshedpur is the city with one of the highest per capita income in the country. The bigger corporate houses like Tata Steel and Tata Motors and a thousand other companies and even more small scale industries facilitate the fact.
It is a modern, industrial city; the main industries being iron and steel, truck manufacturing, tinplate production, cement and other small and medium scale industries revolving around these products. The largest factory is that of Tata Steel (the erstwhile Tata Iron and Steel Company or TISCO), and it is situated almost at the center of the city. Tata Steel is the largest iron and steel producing plant in India, as well as the oldest. Plans have been made for the expansion of Tata Steel's existing plant at Jamshedpur from 7 million tonnes per annum to 10 million tonnes per annum.It would then be the first plant in the world to have 10 million tonne capacity in a single campus.
The steel plant is large enough and still covers around a fourth of the land area of Jamshedpur, and has two inland water lakes.
The other major factory in the city is Tata Motors, which manufactures heavy vehicles & construction/earth moving equipment. Tata Motors was previously called The Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), as railway locomotives were once manufactured here.
Tata Tinplate (the erstwhile Tinplate Co. of India Ltd.) manufactures tinplate. It was originally a British company built in Golmuri, later on taken over by Tata. Another factory, located near Tata Motors, is the Indian Steel and Wire products (ISWP). ISWP was reopened after more than five years by Tata Steel after surmounting all legal impediments and BFIR-related hurdles. ISWP resumed production in its wire mill on January 2, 2004, after its takeover by Tata Steel, and has commenced its rod mill operations.
Several smaller industries, such as TRF (Tata Robins Fraser), which manufactures bulk material handling and processing machines and other engineering goods, are located in Jamshedpur. Agrico, a subsidiary of Tata Steel, manufactures agricultural implements. Tata Yodogawa Ltd manufactures rolls and dies for rolling mills. Praxair and British Oxygen Company (BOC), are producers of liquefied oxygen, nitrogen and other gases, they both have plants adjacent to the steel mill.
Lafarge Cement, earlier Tata Cement, is located near Tata Motors. Along with the smokestacks of Tata Power, a coal fired captive power station that supplies a great deal of the city's electricity, it can be conspicuously seen from the railway tracks while coming to Jamshedpur by rail.
The presence of other companies like ABB, TCS, L&T, S&L, SMS, Danielle, Italiam Pianti are a privilege for the city people.
Most of the Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are located in the 'Adityapur Industrial Estate' which prior to NOIDA was Asia's largest Industrial hub.
Life in the city is comfortable, with all areas having 24 hours running drinking water and electricity (something uncommon in most of urban India).Click here for international testimony to water qualityJamshedpur has one of the highest per capita incomes in the country and is the only town whose municipality is governed by a corporate house.The quality of roads separate the city with the others. All these facilities are maintained by Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company Limited (JUSCO), a 100% owned subsidiary of Tata Steel.
However, areas not maintained by JUSCO experience intermittent power cuts, bad roads and government apathy, much like the other cities in India.
Jamshedpur was earlier chosen to become the capital of Jharkhand but Tata Steel rejected the offer as the city is totally owned and governed by Tata Steel after which Ranchi became the capital of the newly formed state of Jharkhand. Indian cities having area & population similar to those of Jamshedpur are entitled to get a Corporation of their own whose representatives are elected by the residents. This is known in India as a citizen's '3rd vote', the first two being those for the national Parliament and the state Assembly. However, most Municipal Corporations are notorious for their poor service levels and endemic corruption. Hence, this movement for the city's own Corporation has received little support (and even protests against it sometimes), from a majority of the residents.
Jamshedpur is one of the greenest cities of India. Active reforestation and tree planting activities help in maintaining air quality, which would otherwise have been rather polluted by the presence of a large number of industries. More efforts are made every year to re-emphasise Tata Steel's commitment to a cleaner and greener Jamshedpur. Tree plantation, an ongoing activity, found remarkable expression through the 'Green Millennium' Countdown. This unique programme has provided one and a half million additional healthy trees in the new millennium in company areas.
The city is rarely affected by Bandhs (strikes), & has stayed away from communal and religious riots that often break out in other parts of the country. Life in the city has been quite harmonious under the city's able administration.
It was the first ISO 9005 certified city in India.
The city won international acclaim when it was selected for the 2004 Global Compact City award from the UN in India. It surpassed other contenders, such as Bangalore, Pune and Chandigarh, in recognition of its robust infrastructure, cosmopolitan outlook and strong industry. Only 10 cities in the world have been given this privilege.
As of 2001 Jamshedpur had a population of 1.1 million. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Jamshedpur has an average literacy rate of 82%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. In Jamshedpur, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
The conversational language is mainly Hindi. However tribal languages like Santhali and Ho are also spoken in some parts of the city. The city is cosmopolitan in nature. The main ethnic groups are Jharkhandis, Bengalis, Biharis, Punjabis and Oriyas.
Main Sections of the city
- Sakchi: The heart of the city, with the main markets and a few residential areas. It is a residential cum market area.The oldest part of the city has many buildings having older architectural styles, but also houses the bigger merchandises' showrooms. The village at which Jamshedpur was founded was originally called Sakchi.
- Parsudih: Situated in the southern part of Jamshedpur, is one of the largest residential area of the city. Home to Golpahari Temple, the oldest temple in Jamshedpur, is also the most visited temple.
- Mango: Situated across the Subarnarekha River, it's a huge and growing residential area. Once a suburb, thanks to construction entrepreneurs, Mango is now a real estate hotbed. Locations around Lake Dimna offer the most scenic views in the City.
- Jawahar Nagar: a newly Populated Area with a lot of newly built flats and apartments. Many religious centers such as Madrasa Gulshane Husain, Masjid-e-Quba, Khanqahe Nooria Razvia under Noori Markaz founded by M. Mobinul Huda Noori, and Madarsa talimul quran are situated here.
- Bistupur: An upmarket commercial area and residential township, which caters more to the middle/upper-middle class. Most of the city's showrooms, shopping complexes, popular restaurants and high luxury hotels are situated here on the high street. Bistupur commands the highest real estate prices.
- Kadma: A quiet residential locality next to Sonari, probably one of the biggest residential areas in the city. Situated here are living houses for Tata Steel employees like Professional Flats, Dindli Enclave and the exotic Kaiser bungalows.
- Sonari: Houses residential layouts and the city airport, close to Rivers Meet (Karkhai and Subarnarekha). Home to the Bharat Seva Ashram. A regional Indian Army camp is located here.
- Telco: This township is owned & maintained by Tata Motors. Telco officials and employees enjoy all facilities ranging from medical to entertainment all within this area itself, including health care,sports and education. There is also a 'Telco Club' with a swimming pool and a good cricket ground next to it.
- Kailash Nagar : Located next to the NML Pilot Plant and close to Tata's Tubes Division.
- Govindpur: Close to Tata Motors, the Tata Power plant, and the Lafarge Cement plant, Govindpur lies on the way to the Rakha Copper Project and Jadugora Uranium Mines.
- Jugsalai: The area adjacent to the Tatanagar railway station, known as Jugsalai, has a large wholesale market for clothes, grocery, etc.
- Sidhgora: A residential area for Tata Steel employees. The biggest water storage tank of the city is located here.
- Golmuri: The residential and market areas of Golmuri include the city's biggest wholesale grain markets. The Doordarshan television tower is located here, beside a maidan where touring circuses often pitch their tents. Home to the colossal Akash Deep Plaza shopping complex.
- Birsanagar: Named after freedom fighter Birsa Munda, who fought against the British during India's freedom struggle, Birsanagar is the biggest residential area in Jamshedpur. It started out as a huge squatter settlement that was later legalised. The building pattern in this area is irregular, as the residences were privately constructed.
- Adityapur: Connected to the Steel City by Kharkai Bridge, at one time held the status of Asia's largest industrial estate. Most of the ancillary businesses catering to Tata Motors & Tata Cummins are located here. Though situated in a district (Saraikela-Kharsawan) other than that in which Jamshedpur is located (East Singhbhum), it is considered a part of the city. An All India Radio High Power broadcasting station is located here.
- Nildih: Home to the Tubes division of Tata Steel and the bungalows of employees working there.
- Bhalubasa: A residential area with private housing. Its major landmark is the flyover connecting Sakchi to the Agrico area.
- Dhatkidih: Close to Bistupur, Kadma and Sakchi. Very famous for its bakeries. A well known Islamic learning center, Jamia Faizul Uloom founded by Allama Arshadul Qaudri is situated here.
- Aambagaan: A huge open ground. Hosts most of the seasonal fairs & exhibitions. Situated adjacent to Sakchi and Baradwari, it's central location is a big advantage.
- Pardih: Situated just beyond the city near National Highway 33. Has recently seen increases in development activity & population as the city expands further north of the Subernarekha.
- Azadnagar: Also known as Azad Bastie or meaning slum, is Situated in Mango(which it self is out side Jamshedpur(JUSCO area)),is a predominant Muslim area.
- Gamharia: It is an industrial hub and is connected to Jamshedpur by the river Kharkhai. It comes under Saraikela-Kharsawan district but considered to be a part of Jamshedpur. Two big ancillaries of Tata Steel- Tayo Rolls and Tisco Growth Shop ,companies like Usha Martin, Internationally famed Caparo Group of Industries and many other industries are located here.
- Bistupur: Fashion stores; car showrooms, tony hotels & restaurants. Most of the establishments are situated on the high street. This is the downtown section of the city, close to Tatanagar railway station and Sonari Airport.
- Sakchi Bazaar: The "centre" and one of the most developing area of the city.Hypermarkets like Spencers,Reliance Fresh and Shoppers Square are situated here.
- Amar Market, in Bistupur: The latest in youth fashion and footwear.
- Jawahar Market, in Bistupur: Electronics, CDs, video games and fashion.
- Jugsalai : A wholesale market for clothes, groceries, etc.
- Air: The city's airport is located at Sonari.The Airlines operates scheduled services to the following domestic destinations:
- MDLR Airlines - The Airlines has daily flights connecting Jamshedpur with New Delhi,Chandigarh and Ranchi.
- Kingfisher Red - Connects Jamshedpur with Kolkata.
- Few other domestic airlines like Spicejet and Jetlite are eager to add Jamshedpur to their route map and declared the commencement of services very soon.
- Rail: Tatanagar (Jamshedpur) is an important railway junction on the South Eastern Railway and is connected directly to all the major cities of India, viz., Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore,Amritsar,Patna,Raipur, Ranchi,Pune,Jammu etc. The main railway station of the city is known as Tatanagar Junction.
- Road: Jamshedpur is well connected by road with most of the major cities in India. National Highway 33 (NH33) touches the city and joins the NH2, which connects Kolkata with Delhi. And the NH32 also connects Jamshedpur to Gobindpur via Dhanbad.Regular bus services are available from Jamshedpur to Ranchi (131 km), Patna, Gaya, Kolkata (300 km) via Baharagora, Hazaribagh, Puri,Bhubaneshwar,Asansol,Bokaro,Dhanbad etc.Also,the construction work of a 4 Lane expressway connecting Adityapur with the city has started which is believed to be completed by the end of 2009.
- Bus Services: Jamshedpur City Ride Bus is a newly introduced road transport system run by JUSCO. It was launched on 3rd March, 2009 on Founder's Day. The fleet comprises of Tata Star Buses. It is an extensive service with routes servicing most areas of the city. Each bus is equipped with GPS, elecronic sign boards and computerized vending machines.
Auto rickshaws are the other popular mode of local commuting. Ensure fixing the fare for Auto Rickshaws before hiring. Auto Rickshaws usually operate on the 'share' principal with several passengers paying fixed amounts for sharing a ride to a common destination.
Places of Interest
- Jubilee Park: This park was a gift by Tata Steel to the citizens of Jamshedpur on the completion of its 50 years. It was inaugurated by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India in 1956. This 225-acre (0.91 km2) park has a special rose garden and a lake. It has an avenue of specially trimmed Ashok trees and fountains and water cascades which run during the night. It is a favourite with morning walkers, joggers, cyclists & anglers. There are also a few recreational areas inside or attached to Jubilee park.
- Laser Show: The laser show and the musical fountains, one of its kind in this part of the country, is a unique, educative and entertaining spectacle. The laser show was the first in India introduced to celebrate the new millennium.
- Tata Steel Zoological Park: The well kept zoo is tucked in a corner of the Jubilee Park. The 'Safari Park' in the zoo enables visitors to take a drive through a wooded area where animals roam free and uncaged. A visit to the Nature Education Centre, a boat ride in the Jubilee Lake or a walk along the Nature Trail are unique outlets for relaxation. The co-existence of wildlife in close proximity to the Steel Plant is evidence of the excellent balance of industry with nature.
- Jubilee Nicco Amusement Park: The park has redefined entertainment in the Steel City. A special gift to the children of Jamshedpur, the amusement park provides entertainment that was earlier the privilege of metro cities only. The green hillocks and the waterbody provide a wonderful ambience for an outing where games like whirling in the wind, dashing cars, rolling till the moon, derby riding, caterpillar ride and a 75-meter slide can be enjoyed.
- Dimna Lake: Nestling at the foot of the Dalma hills, Dimna Lake is an artificial reservoir and one of the main sources for the city's drinking water. The Lake has facilities for water sports like jetskiing, rowing and water scooting.
- Rivers Meet: 'Domuhani' - the scenic confluence of Kharkai and Subarnarekha rivers. Domuhani, situated at the extreme North-West point of the city, is a popular picnic spot.
- Dalma Hills: North of Subarnarenkha river, the Dalma Hills stretch 16 km from east to west. Accessible by road. Famous for herds of wild elephants. Facilities for trekking & mountain climbing.
- Hudco Lake: In Telco Colony, a beautiful park and picnic spot with an artificial waterfall and man-made lake. The hillock nearby provides a panoramic view of the surrounding areas.
- Sir Dorabji Tata Park: Near Keenan Stadium. Hosts Jamshedpur's annual flower show in December. Manicured lawns, flower beds and brilliantly lit fountains provide a delightful touch of colour to the park.
- Bhatia Park: Situated at Shastri Nagar along the banks of the Subernareka river. Located at Uliyaan, Kadma.
- Keenan Stadium: The well known stadium where many international cricket matches are played, Keenan Stadium was regarded as India's most beautiful cricket stadium until Mohali came up. There have been many ODIs played here; unfortunately India has lost most of them.
- JRD Tata Sports Complex: This magnificent complex has an international standard football ground and an eight-lane monosynthetic track. Facilities for other sports, viz., handball, tennis, volleyball, hockey, basketball, boxing, and table tennis, as well as a modern gymnasium, are available at the complex, which was the first of its kind in India.
- Russi Mody Centre of Excellence (RMCE): A unique structure, just outside the Jubilee Park, designed by the famous architect, Hafeez Contractor, is home to the many professional associations of Jamshedpur. It also houses the Tata Steel Archives, where one can see documents relating to the history of the Steel Company and the city.
- Gol Pahari Mandir: Situated just outside the city, Gol Pahari is famous for the Pahari Mandir, where Pahari Maa is the reigning deity. The temple (mandir) is built on a hill near the Tatanagar Railway Station. An annual festival is organised at the Railway Loco Colony to worship Pahari Maa.
- Bhuvaneshwari Mandir: Located at Telco colony near VBCV school. Situated on top of a hill, it looks down on the South-Eastern stretch of the city. The view is very beautiful.
- Ghatshila: A township famous for copper factory is situated 37km far west of Jamshedpur. A beautiful town famous for its scenic beauty.
- Best Places to eat: The Sonnet-Bistupur, Host- Bistupur, Novelty- Bistupur, Hong Kong/Dosa King- Contractors Area, Asian Inn-Dhatkidih, Hotel Smita- Sakchi, Mansarovar- Sakchi, Bhola Maharaj- Sakchi the pavbhaji in circuit house area and many more...
Jamshedpur has a high literacy rate, comparable to the best in the country. The Steel City has as many as 183 schools and 13 colleges. Of these, 25 schools and one inter-college are managed by JUSCO Education Department. They cater to over thirty thousand children, with fees at a concessional rate. Tata Steel also endows various scholarships, enabling talented students to pursue higher studies. These include the Golden Jubilee scholarship, which is awarded to deserving students who are studying in various colleges.
The most famous institutes in Jamshedpur are XLRI (Xavier Labour Relations Institute), a management institute rated among the best in the country, and National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, an Institute of National Importance in the field of Enginnering/Technology.
See also Educational institutions in Jamshedpur for a list of the schools and colleges in Jamshedpur.
The schools provide quality education packed with 'ethics'. Most of the schools follow the ICSE/ISC pattern, while others are affiliated to CBSE board. Some of the notable schools of Jamshedpur are:
- Sacred Heart Convent School
- Carmel Junior College
- Delhi Public School
- Andhra Association High School
- Kerala Public School
- Beldih Church School
- Loyola School
- Gulmohur High School
- Ramakrishna Mission School
- Little Flower School
- Hill Top School
- Jamshedpur Public School
- Kerala Samajam Model School
- DAV Public School
- Rajendra Vidyalaya
- Motilal Nehru Public School
- Tagore Academy
- RMS High School
- St. Mary's High School
Sports are 'a way of life' at Tata Steel and Jamshedpur's reputation as the sports capital of Jharkhand is a consequence of this philosophy. Under the close supervision of skilled coaches, training is imparted to sports persons to excel at national and international level competitions. The initiative is mainly taken by the city's corporate houses.
It has been a constant effort by Tata Steel to promote sporting activities. Jamshedpur's numerous private clubs provide opportunities for a variety of sporting activities, such as golf, tennis, squash, billiards, horse ridding, water scootering, etc.
Various clubs/stadiums have been formed in Jamshedpur to promote sports -
Keenan Stadium-With the backdrop of the Dalma Hills and the chimneys of Tata Steel factories, The Keenan Stadium provides a picturesque setting for cricket.The stadium has been named after John Lawrence Keenan, a former general manager at Tata Steel. Also known as the graveyard for the Indian Team, the Stadium hosted its 1st International Cricket match in 1983 when India lost the match against the touring West Indies team. Many games have been played here but unfortunately India has able to won only one match against South Africa in 1999-00.
Tata Football Academy (TFA) - The Academy was started in 1987 to nurture budding Indian footballers in a scientific way and raise the overall standard of Indian football.
Tata Archery academy - Archery is a sport indigenous to the tribal people of Chhotanagpur and Santhal Pargana. Tata Steel has pursued and nurtured the local tribals and provided them with necessary facilities and training to bring them up to international competition standards in Archery.
Some of the important sport stadiums in the city are JRD Tata Sports Complex & Sumant Moolgaonkar Stadium, and several indoor stadiums and other quality maintained sports grounds.
Jamshedpur can also boast of three golf courses.